Second Generation Computers: Transistors (1956-1963)

 The second generation of computers marked a significant advancement in computing technology, as it saw the widespread use of transistors in place of vacuum tubes. This period of computing lasted from 1956 to 1963 and was characterized by smaller, faster, and more reliable computers than the first generation.

Second Generation Computers: Transistors (1956-1963)
Second Generation Computers: Transistors (1956-1963)

Transistors were invented in 1947 by William Shockley, John Bardeen, and Walter Brattain at Bell Labs. They were smaller and more reliable than vacuum tubes, which were the primary electronic components used in the first generation of computers. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes as the main switching element in computers, resulting in computers that were faster, more efficient, and more reliable.

During this period, the first commercially available transistorized computer was produced. It was the IBM 7090, which was introduced in 1959. This computer was used in many scientific and engineering applications and was one of the most powerful computers of its time.

Other notable second-generation computers include the UNIVAC 1107, the DEC PDP-1, and the IBM 1401. These computers were smaller, more affordable, and easier to maintain than their vacuum tube predecessors.

The second generation of computers also saw the development of new programming languages such as COBOL and FORTRAN, which made it easier for programmers to write software for these computers.

Overall, the second generation of computers was a significant milestone in computing history, as it marked the transition from vacuum tube to transistor technology and laid the foundation for further advancements in computing.

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